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What research tells us about early exposure to coding

Parents these days are constantly asking if early exposure to coding brings benefits to their child. Intuitively, it is easy to argue for its benefits especially within the competitive Singapore education. But why stop there? We like to share some conclusions from a paper titled Development of computational thinking, digital competence and 21st century skills when learning programming in K-9 published on the Education Inquiry journal in 2020.

This study follows Swedish teachers who had been teaching programming for a couple of years on their own initiative. The teachers were selected based on their experience in teaching programming. Interviews were conducted to shed light on what skills teachers perceive pupils develop when programming. This study identified 3 themes related to computational thinking skills as well as cognitive and language skills that were developed as students learn to code.

Computational concepts

  • Sequences

  • Loops

  • Events

  • Parallelism

  • Conditionals

  • Operators

  • Data

Computational practice skills

  • Being incremental and iterative

  • Testing and debugging

  • Reusing and remixing

  • Abstracting and modularizing

Computational perspective skills

  • Expressing

  • Connecting

  • Questioning

Cognitive skills

  • Logical thinking skills

  • Symbolic/abstract thinking skills

  • Accuracy

  • Courage to make mistakes and test things

  • Patience/persistence

Language skills

  • Programming language comprehension

  • Syntax (programming)

  • Compressing code

  • Vocabulary


The Logic Coders is a coding school for kids aged 6-16 in Singapore

Locations: City Square Mall #06-05 & Parkway Centre #13-07

We offer term-time and holiday programs using the Lego EV3 Robotics platform and Python

Learn more at:

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